Rome & Byzantine History


Known as Byzantion or for  Greeks Constantinople,

Istanbul is the only city in the world built on two continents.( Asia/Europe )

The Byzantine Empire was the same as the Roman Empire from the 4th century to the

6th century AD and after this period, the Byzantines called themselves Romaioi or Roman.

The city thus became the capital city of the empire for more than 1000 years.

The religion of the empire changed from the belief of polytheism(paganism )to Christianity and  language change  from Latin to Greek.

The culture called “Byzantine ,, has emerged in line with its old name.

The exit of the world from the last glacial period and the reasons caused by tectonic movements separated Asia and Europe continents.

And people said to this area; Bosfor (Bosphorus).

Such a field of attraction created the perfect environment for human life to survive.

Between the 8th and 6th century BC, the people of Khalkedon lived on the Asian side of the city, while on the European side, according to legends, the people of the Commander Byzas lived.

After this period, people named the city as Byzantion or in Latin Language  Byzantium.

We find the first information about Istanbul in the 4th Book of the famous historian Heredot’s ‘History’.

Beginnig Istanbul was  a small city state  I mean  The Polis and  It has grown up and enriched with this effect of its unique geographical location.

Golden Horn; offering endless seafood to people living in the city. The view of a peninsula, little rivers passing through the city and the reinforced sea walls in each period made Istanbul, which joined the Greek city states, much more important than other cities.

This also caused the enriched city to be surrounded by other nations and to attack the city.

Although it is thought that it was founded as a Greek Colony by the Megara People in 7th century BC

excavations on the Marmara Coast carry the history of the city beyond 8000 years.

The Historian Herodot tells us that The Persian Emperor Darius had built a bridge to the Greek engineer Mandrokles on the narrowest part of the Bosphorus on the journey of the Scythians (Turks) in his works we just mentioned.And Istanbul seen in History , first time.  512 BC

City remained under the domination of the Persians for a while. After the Persians were defeated by Pausanias, Son of Cleombrotos, King of Sparta in 491 BC and  Byzantines was again included in the city provinces.(Polis)


Of course, with the effect of having the Bosphorus, it is the richest city of the sea union.

In the later periods, They either got close or fought with the problems between Athens and Sparta.

In the same period, the second Philippos, King of Macedonia came to the stage of history by establishing his unity in Europe and as a great power.

Philippos besieged Istanbul in 340 BC. The city, which was patient with the help of the Athenians, The city survived this siege one year later and  The Byzantines made a monument to the city for Athenians.

With the death of the Macedonian King Alexander the Great (Alexandros), the city continued its independence as an independent state.

This period called The Hellenistic Age after the death of Alexander the Great,

And This period was effective in culture and belief life in Asia Minor and all the surrounding regions.

Byzantines expanded for a while around the Sea of ​​Marmara and towards the Bitinya region.

They witnessed the occupation of the Gauls in 279 BC.

They were surrounded by the Bithynians and the Rhodesians.

Romans started to form their troops in the 2nd century B.C.

They appeared on the stage of history as a superpower together with Emperor Augustus in the 1st century BC.

Romans began to configure the Asian province in 129 BC and The Hellenistic Period has completely ended.

Romans redesigned to Byzantium. Many works were made in the city during this period and after or

old temples were repaired.

The Byzantines fell under the protection of the Romans and began to pay tribute to them.

So they maintained their independence.The Roman connected to Istanbul to The Rome up to

Thrakia and Adriatic Sea. The name was Via Enetia.

The city became very important for the Roman Empire over the next 2 centuries.

First , The Empire lifted the tribute they gave to Rome  and then  during the reign of Emperor Vespinianus in 73 BC, he completely added the city to Roman Empire .

Its  involved in throne fights during Emperor Septimius and destroyed by the same Emperor due to the revenge of these wars.But  He and His Son Caracalla reconstructed the city. Becouse There were so important location.

In the time of Emperor Diocletianus, the administration was divided into two cities… Management would be on equal terms in West and East side…

That is; Diocletianus, who became emperor in 284 AD, made radical changes in management,

He undersigned economy, law, military and a series of structural reforms.

But this did not prevent the rulers from fighting each other and the throne being captured by a person.

As the West weakened, the East was rising at the same rate.

Constantinus in the east defeated Licinius in the west and became the emperor of all Rome (324 AD)

He moved the capital city  from Rome to Byzantium (330 AD).

Many historians start the history of Istanbul with this event.

In fact, this event is regarded as the beginning of the Eastern Rome Empire, I mean  The Byzantine Empire.

During the same Emperor, Christianity emerged on the territory of the country and became stronger.

It is claimed that the Emperor Constatinus  died as a Christian.

In 337, the Son of the same name, Constantius, took over. His successors Gallus and Julianus became emperors.

Christianity became an official religion only during the reign of Emperor Theodosius 381 BC.

This family ruled The Empire until 457 BC.

Then Emperor Leo and his family took over.

Anastasius, an experienced general in 491 BC, became Emperor. The economy was safe and the borders were in peace.

After the death of Anastasius, another commander from the army, Justinus Emperor became .

Justinus was  old when He comes to this position and He was about to prepare his successor.

He prepared his nephew Justinianus for this task.

Including Hagia Sophia , Little Hagia Sophia, Ayairini, Basilica Cistern and dozens more buildings brought to the city, The story of the Emperor, who organizes expeditions to the east and west, starts from here.

Years showed 526 BC.

Belief disputes over the past 200 years had increased.